The severity of the threat of climate and ecological breakdown is now well understood across disciplines, and the study of Media Communication on Climate Change is an advanced discipline focused on the role of the media in responding to climate change, and its role in shifting political and social agendas in response. This essay deals with the BBC’s reporting of the Extinction Rebellion protests beginning in October 2018, concluding the sustained direct action increased the quality and depth of the BBC’s reporting on Climate Breakdown.
How has the environmental movement over the last six months influenced media discourse from the BBC in the United Kingdom on climate breakdown?
The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on the catastrophic consequences of 1.5 degrees of warming released in October 2018, and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Global Assessment report released in April 2019, both make for terrifying reading. The message is blunt: climate change (now ‘climate breakdown’), destruction of habitat, pollution and exploitation of nature will have catastrophic consequences for our civilisation: increased extreme weather events; total collapse of ecosystems; droughts leading to massive famines; displacement of millions of people; mass extinction of whole ecosystems and – without radical action – total societal collapse and potential human extinction (IPCC, 2018),(IPBES, 2019). Despite this, the natural world continues to be exploited at a pace that will lead to the most severe and inescapable crisis’. Carbon Dioxide levels continue to rise; international agreements to limit warming remain ineffective; and we are locking in inescapable and exponential temperature rises as high as 5oC by 2100 (IPCC, 2018). Business carries on as usual, as scientists’ despair.
This essay builds upon the work of the interdisciplinary field of Media Coverage of Climate Change (MCCC) to determine whether the Extinction Rebellion (XR) protests that began in October have shaped the reporting trends of the BBC towards climate breakdown over the last six months. Following a cursory analysis of reporting trends on climate breakdown by the BBC the qualitative method of critical Discourse Analysis is used to dissect the change in language over the chosen period. The development of the space allocated within articles to XR’s demands, rather than controversy over their methods, is traced, in accordance with developed research methods of MCCC and critical Discourse Analysis. It is concluded that the sustained campaign of Non-Violent Direct Action has succeeded in generating significant discourse outside of the norms of media cycles on climate breakdown, and rich opportunities for further study into the factors that influence media reporting on climate breakdown are noted.
The last decade has seen the maturing of MCCC into a broad interdisciplinary research field, seeking to critically analyse the trends and framing phenomena within reporting on climate change. Of particular importance in the literature of MCCC is Framing, defined as “the process by which people develop a particular conceptualization of an issue or reorient their thinking about an issue” (Chong, D., Druckman, J. N., 2007). In relation to MCCC, different frames are applied to climate reporting with significant effects upon the emotional and political response of readers towards acting to mitigate climate breakdown, as “the complexity [of climate change] provides journalists, parties, and interest groups tremendous latitude in framing the issue to serve their interests and beliefs” (Dominik S., Merkley, E., 2019). Conservative media sources in particular tend towards portraying climate breakdown in a context of uncertainty that discourages action (Morton, T., Rabinovich, A., Marshall, D., Bretschneider, P. 2011). Research has shown that the presentation of climate breakdown across all media sources is saturated with false controversy and the legitimation of scientifically illiterate scepticism (Painter, 2011) (Corbett, J. B., & Durfee, J. L. 2004). Boycoff influentially argued that ‘balanced’ reporting offering up two opposing scientific opinions to an uncontroversial issue would influence public perception of climate breakdown (Boycoff, M. 2007). This was confirmed by psychology tests that found “ ‘false balance’ can distort perceptions of expert opinion even when participants would seem to have all the information needed to correct for its influence” (Koehler, D. J.,2016).
Recent analysis has suggested that there has been a positive trend towards climate reporting in broadsheets using present tense language and highlighting the dangers of inaction (Dominik S., Merkley, E., 2019). “Quoting contrarian voices still is part of transnational climate coverage, but these quotes are contextualized with a dismissal of climate change denial” (Brüggermann, M. Engesser, S., 2017). However, significant media attention is still given to the debate against climate change deniers, leaving less media attention for the more relevant debates about mitigating climate breakdown.
Existing literature in the field of MCCC has effectively described the changes in the frequency and language surrounding climate change journalism, particularly in Broadsheet publications both in the US and the UK (Boycoff, M. Boycoff, J. 2007). However, there is an absence of research focused on the role of social protest movements in influencing this change. Although there is a growing body of research investigating influencing factors on climate reporting, the focus of comprehensive meta-analysis of climate change reporting is generally focused on the impact of important environmental conferences and prominent extreme weather events (Schäfer, M., Schlichting, A. 2014). Given the embryonic nature of XR their explosive impact on MCCC in the United Kingdom is under-researched, and this is where my research hopes to add to the dialogue.
Furthermore, most Critical Discourse Analysis studies comparatively analyse articles from newspapers from each side of the political spectrum, such as the Guardian and the Telegraph. This is effective as providing balanced research, however the role of editorial political ideology in framing MCCC is exhaustively documented. (Schäfer, M., Berglez, P., Wessler, H., Eide, E., Nerlich, B.,O’Neill, S. 2016). Given the central political demand of XR is for the government to ‘Tell the Truth’ about the danger of the climate crisis, including by directing the BBC to make it an editorial priority, my research focuses on the change affected in the BBC’s reporting on XR over a six-month period.
It is worth noting the research of the field of mediatization and the role of the media in political agenda-setting given the role such theories have in directing the media strategy of pressure-groups such as XR. Essentially, “journalists do not entirely autonomously initiate new issues, but rather they play a role in strengthening and structuring the initiatives taken by political actors”, therefore there is profound relevance to the level of political action taken in the quality and framing of media coverage of an activist group (Reich, 2006; Wolfsfeld , Sheafer, 2006). The mechanics of this interaction between political power and the media is well worth the attention of future research, given the rapid success of XR in getting their demands on the political agenda.
Qualitive Critical Discourse analysis can reveal the power dynamics that are enforced by language, which is not neutral but instead “loaded with assumptions about the nature of the social and political world and our understanding of it” (Burnham, 2008). This is particularly prescient in the case of the national broadcaster, as Van Dijk argues that “One needs to pay detailed attention to the structures and strategies of such discourses and to the ways these relate to institutional arrangements, on the one hand, and to the audience, on the other hand” (Dijk, K.A., 1995), because of the institutional relationship and power dynamics that exist between the BBC and the government.
Boycoff uses the depth of political economic and societal analyses within media articles as an indicative factor of high-quality Climate Breakdown journalism, and this provides the focus of my analysis of BBC articles reporting on the rise of Extinction Rebellion (Boycoff, M. 2007). Critical Discourse Analysis is also wary of deliberate tactics of delegitimization, erasure and hijacking quotations with editorial commentary (Schäfer, M., Berglez, P., Wessler, H., Eide, E., Nerlich, B.,O’Neill, S. 2016). I first provide the context for the BBC’s record on reporting on climate change, and then look at several different discursive characteristics of four different BBCs reports on the major XR actions, namely:
- The length of the articles, as an indication of an issues’ importance
- The amount of the article dedicated to covering XR’s demands and the wider context of climate breakdown
- The depth of analysis of XR’s demands and achievements
These factors determine to what extent the article’s discursive narratives challenge or sustain unequal power relations (Boycoff, M.2007) specifically in regard to the extent to which XR’s demands face erasure or delegitimation. I hypothesise based on extensive observation of the media trends towards XR that they have successfully shifted the framing of their demands and encouraged more depth to BBC coverage.
On the 31st of October 2018 XR declared a National Rebellion against the British government because of their failure to act to prevent catastrophic climate and biodiversity collapse, in an event almost universally ignored by the media. The group’s demands were clear: the government must “Tell the Truth” about the extent of the danger climate breakdown poses by Declaring a National Climate and Biodiversity Emergency; launch ambitious public infrastructure projects to reduce net-emissions to zero by 2025; and set up a citizen’s assembly to manage the transition to a zero-carbon economy (Extinction Rebellion, 2019). The BBC did not report on this protest.
However, within a week 22 XR activists were arrested at several demonstrations including a blockade of the Energy Department in London. The BBC article on the demonstrations was 875 words long; is notable for failing to use the group’s name Extinction Rebellion for the majority of the article (instead using the term “environmental activists”); and starts with an explicit defence of the establishment’s record on Climate Breakdown: “The UK is seen as a leader in policies to reduce greenhouse gases and will soon be considering tougher targets”. Whilst it does list XR’s demands, it took an overwhelmingly cynical outlook to them, dedicating significant attention towards a critical commentary on their achievability. The following extract is notable for the use of paradoxical assertive language as well as an appeal to uncited “experts”: “But experts say achieving a zero-emissions economy by 2025 isn’t in any scenario. It would need a revolution in transport, home insulation, energy efficiency, agriculture and more” (BBC, 2018); the sentence explicitly denies there are any scenarios that could achieve the emissions cuts, before immediately describing an entirely plausible set of infrastructure investments that are scientifically necessary to avoid civilizational collapse. In the words of Kevin Anderson:
“Long-term and end-point targets (for example, 80% by 2050) have no scientific basis. What governs future global temperatures and other adverse climate impacts are the emissions from yesterday, today and those released in the next few years… there is little to suggest that existing mitigation proposals will deliver anything but rising emissions over the coming decade or two” (Anderson, K., Bows, A. 2012).
The article uses an emotional appeal that draws on fear of police cuts and rising violent crime to delegitimise XR’s tactics, wondering whether “freeing protesters from cycle locks was a good use of police time” (Ibid.). Of interest is the ahistorical erasure of the heritage of Non-Violent Direct Action as a tactic, whereby the writer argues that Civil Disobedience was only legitimate during the American Civil-Rights Struggle because “these groups didn’t have the vote” (ignoring the fact that it was a collective of mixed race and privilege who were arrested and jailed during the Freedom Rides campaign). Finally, the article ends with a deeply watered down scientific validation for XR’s action: “Despite uncertainties in forecasts about the rate of heating, many senior scientists working on environmental change are genuinely alarmed by the huge risks mankind is taking”, but even this is couched with a dog-whistle reference a lack of scientific evidence on warming projections; the explicit choice of the word “many” (hiding the scale of consensus); and the adjective “alarmed”. For contrast, the New Yorker described the latest IPCC report as “a collective scream sieved through the stern, strained language of bureaucratese” (Kormann, 2018). The BBC was reprimanded in 2011 by a BBC Trust Committee for giving too much attention to climate sceptics, however in September 2018 they were forced to circulate an editorial policy memo on false-bias following an interview with climate sceptic Nigel Lawson which was found by Ofcom to be in breach of broadcasting rules for failing to challenge his claims that there was no warming over the last century (BBC, 2011) (Carrington, D., 2018).
The following week, Extinction Rebellion blocked five bridges in London and 82 activists were arrested. The BBC’s article was only 467 words long, despite the event capturing national media focus, and did not list XR’s demands. 161 words of the coverage was dedicated to a derisory opinion piece by Roger Harrabin, a BBC Environmental Correspondent, who wrote:
“XR thinks marching with placards has failed, so it’s aiming to make mayhem instead. But have the protestors picked the right target? The UK is in the leading pack of nations in cutting the CO2 emissions that are over-heating the planet… The protesters say the targets will be breached if the government spends £30bn on new roads, encourages fracking and looks to expand aviation even further. Climate change demands a seismic shift in society, they say. And they’re not seeing that yet.” (Harrabin, R., 2018).
There is a notable improvement upon the first article in the construction of a dialogue between government policy and XR criticism, however the conditional language frames scientific facts as things that “XR thinks”, “the protestors say” and “they say”. This fails to adequately convey to the reader that in June 2018, the Committee on Climate Change concluded that “the fact is that we’re off track to meet our own emissions targets in the 2020s and 2030s” (CCC, 2018).
Within a few months XR launched the biggest wave of civil disobedience in British history, and catapulted climate breakdown to the top of a stagnant national political discourse dominated by Brexit. XR’s protests reached a crescendo on April 15th with an International Rebellion, in which over 1000 activists were arrested and a lesser number charged in a systematic Non-Violent Direct Action (NVDA) campaign, the aim of which was to force the government to the negotiating table and generate media attention. XR succeeded on both fronts. On 16th April, the BBC published a comprehensive 1,086 word article titled “Extinction Rebellion: What do they want and is it realistic?” which detailed all of the groups aims as well as relevant scientific debate. The most significant editorial shift is away from extreme language towards objective analysis, as well as a change in author and an obvious accompanying shift in tone: “Achieving net zero five years earlier than the Zero Carbon Britain plan would be an unprecedented challenge, akin to a wartime situation. It would not be impossible but it would depend on a fierce political commitment” (McGrath, M. 2019). There is a notable change from editorialising XR’s message towards using quotation marks to allow the group to present its own case. This shifts the overall article away from an opinion piece style towards a constructive and informative presentation to the reader, which is ultimately much more sympathetic to the reasons for XR’s actions, rather than an explicit focus and false outrage about the disruption the actions caused: in this article XR’s three demands are presented “as a solution to the “climate breakdown and ecological collapse that threaten our existence”” (Ibid.). By describing them as a positive “solution” rather than using aggressive framing, XR’s demands appear constructive and non-confrontational.
In a 726-word article describing the end of the International Rebellion, the BBC concluded with a summary of the impact the protests had had on respected political figures:
“Environment Minister Michael Gove said the activists’ “point had been made”. He added it was time to have “a serious conversation about what we can do to collectively deal with this problem”. Mr Milliband said global warming would get “far worse” if the government did not act with “greater urgency”. (BBC, 2019)
This essentially is a legitimation from figures of authority of XR’s actions and gives some indication on how far the national political discourse was affected by the tactics of sustained civil disobedience.
My research indicates that the quality of the BBC’s MCCC increased significantly over the course of the six months of XR Non-Violent Direct Action. Research into the mediazation of politics and the role of the media in setting the political agenda would support the inference that the paradigm shift in media perception and reporting on XR helped establish its legitimacy as a political and social force and lead to their demands being achieved in Parliament (Van Aelst, P., Thesen, G., Walgrave, S., & Vliegenthart, R., 2013).
Further qualitative research would be useful to interview editors within media institutions to analyse the impact of protest on agenda setting. Gamson and Wolfsfeld’s early analysis of the relationship between activists and media found that because activists are dependent upon media for outreach, there is a “Fundamental asymmetry that implies the greater power of the media system in this interaction” (Gamson, M. Wolfsfeld, G. 1993). However, it is evident that new forms of communication including social media have shifted this dynamic, as news outlets react to the activism for fear of missing out on a story. Quantitative data analysis of social media surrounding the demonstrations, which was the primary form of engagement and outreach of the movement, would also be useful.
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